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Italy - 14th and 15th Centuries

May Black Guelph  faction expelled from Florence
1 November Charles of Valois enters Florence; Blacks return
December Frederick II of Sicily defeats Charles II of Naples at Falconaria
27 January The Black faction expels the Whites, including Dante, from Florence
May Charles of Valois made captain-general of papal army
11 July Battle of Courtrai. Philip IV of France is defeated by a Flemish army under Guy of Flanders  made up of citizen-soldiers
24 September Treaty of Caltabellotta
7 September   William of Nogaret arrests Pope Boniface VIII at Anagni
12 September The people of Anagni force William to release Boniface
26 April Florentine factions are reconciled by Benedict XI
10 June The centre of Florence destroyed by fire, set by agents of the Blacks
7 July Pope Benedict XI dies
20 July Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch) born
January Modena and Reggio rebel against Azzo d'Este
10 April Pistoia surrenders to Florence and Lucca after a ten-month siege; they divide its territories
7 May Bologna rebels against papal rule and expels the papal rector

Giotto begins frescoes in the Arena Chapel at Padua

6 October Corso Donati is killed while evading arrest. This marks the last attempt to establish supremacy by the nobles of Florence

Master Jacopo of  Florence writes a treatise on mathematics

April Pope Clement claims Ferrara as a papal fief

Duccio paints Maestà for Siena Cathedral

University of Perugia is founded

27 March Clement declares Venice is no longer a Christian state because of its support for Folco d'Este
8 May Death of Charles II of Naples; he is succeeded by his son Robert (-1343)
August Papal forces defeat Venice at Tedaldo in the War of the Ferrarese Succession
15 June Venice and Clement make peace; the pope appoints Robert as vicar of Ferrara

Plot of Bajamonte Tiepolo and Mario Querini fails; Venice creates the Dieci

Dante writes Convito - The Banquet

The Doge's Palace in Venice is begun

6 January Emperor Henry VII crowned King of Lombardy in Milan
September Henry captures Brescia, which had resisted him

After capturing and punishing Brescia, Henry proceeds to Rome

Henry appoints Matteo Visconti imperial vicar of Milan and Cangrande della Scala as vicar of Verona

29 June Henry VII crowned Emperor. Ceremony takes place in the Lateran because St. Peter's is held by hostile Romans supported by Robert of Naples. Henry leaves Rome as soon as the ceremony is over.
31 October Henry tries but fails to take Florence

Death of Malatesta, lord of Rimini